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Less immune activation following social stress in rural vs. urban participants raised with regular or no animal contact, respectively

Overview of attention for article published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, April 2018
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (98th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
60 news outlets
blogs
9 blogs
twitter
423 tweeters
facebook
7 Facebook pages
googleplus
4 Google+ users
video
1 video uploader

Citations

dimensions_citation
50 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
163 Mendeley
Title
Less immune activation following social stress in rural vs. urban participants raised with regular or no animal contact, respectively
Published in
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, April 2018
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1719866115
Pubmed ID
Authors

Till S. Böbel, Sascha B. Hackl, Dominik Langgartner, Marc N. Jarczok, Nicolas Rohleder, Graham A. Rook, Christopher A. Lowry, Harald Gündel, Christiane Waller, Stefan O. Reber

Abstract

Urbanization is on the rise, and environments offering a narrow range of microbial exposures are linked to an increased prevalence of both physical and mental disorders. Human and animal studies suggest that an overreactive immune system not only accompanies stress-associated disorders but might even be causally involved in their pathogenesis. Here, we show in young [mean age, years (SD): rural, 25.1 (0.78); urban, 24.5 (0.88)] healthy human volunteers that urban upbringing in the absence of pets (n = 20), relative to rural upbringing in the presence of farm animals (n = 20), was associated with a more pronounced increase in the number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentrations following acute psychosocial stress induced by the Trier social stress test (TSST). Moreover, ex vivo-cultured PBMCs from urban participants raised in the absence of animals secreted more IL-6 in response to the T cell-specific mitogen Con A. In turn, antiinflammatory IL-10 secretion was suppressed following TSST in urban participants raised in the absence of animals, suggesting immunoregulatory deficits, relative to rural participants raised in the presence of animals. Questionnaires, plasma cortisol, and salivary α-amylase, however, indicated the experimental protocol was more stressful and anxiogenic for rural participants raised in the presence of animals. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that urban vs. rural upbringing in the absence or presence of animals, respectively, increases vulnerability to stress-associated physical and mental disorders by compromising adequate resolution of systemic immune activation following social stress and, in turn, aggravating stress-associated systemic immune activation.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 423 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 163 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 163 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 24 15%
Student > Ph. D. Student 23 14%
Researcher 18 11%
Student > Master 15 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 13 8%
Other 28 17%
Unknown 42 26%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 24 15%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 18 11%
Psychology 18 11%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 12 7%
Neuroscience 8 5%
Other 25 15%
Unknown 58 36%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 831. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 05 November 2022.
All research outputs
#18,199
of 23,041,514 outputs
Outputs from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#572
of 98,714 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#433
of 325,395 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#14
of 988 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 23,041,514 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 98,714 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 37.1. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 325,395 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 988 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.