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Child first language and adult second language are both tied to general-purpose learning systems

Overview of attention for article published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, January 2018
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (98th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (91st percentile)

Mentioned by

news
16 news outlets
blogs
6 blogs
twitter
49 X users
facebook
1 Facebook page

Citations

dimensions_citation
85 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
250 Mendeley
citeulike
1 CiteULike
Title
Child first language and adult second language are both tied to general-purpose learning systems
Published in
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, January 2018
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1713975115
Pubmed ID
Authors

Phillip Hamrick, Jarrad A G Lum, Michael T Ullman

Abstract

Do the mechanisms underlying language in fact serve general-purpose functions that preexist this uniquely human capacity? To address this contentious and empirically challenging issue, we systematically tested the predictions of a well-studied neurocognitive theory of language motivated by evolutionary principles. Multiple metaanalyses were performed to examine predicted links between language and two general-purpose learning systems, declarative and procedural memory. The results tied lexical abilities to learning only in declarative memory, while grammar was linked to learning in both systems in both child first language and adult second language, in specific ways. In second language learners, grammar was associated with only declarative memory at lower language experience, but with only procedural memory at higher experience. The findings yielded large effect sizes and held consistently across languages, language families, linguistic structures, and tasks, underscoring their reliability and validity. The results, which met the predicted pattern, provide comprehensive evidence that language is tied to general-purpose systems both in children acquiring their native language and adults learning an additional language. Crucially, if language learning relies on these systems, then our extensive knowledge of the systems from animal and human studies may also apply to this domain, leading to predictions that might be unwarranted in the more circumscribed study of language. Thus, by demonstrating a role for these systems in language, the findings simultaneously lay a foundation for potentially important advances in the study of this critical domain.

X Demographics

X Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 49 X users who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.
Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 250 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 250 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 58 23%
Student > Master 37 15%
Researcher 28 11%
Professor 15 6%
Student > Bachelor 13 5%
Other 40 16%
Unknown 59 24%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Linguistics 55 22%
Psychology 40 16%
Neuroscience 31 12%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 9 4%
Social Sciences 8 3%
Other 31 12%
Unknown 76 30%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 187. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 20 July 2019.
All research outputs
#212,418
of 25,365,817 outputs
Outputs from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#4,023
of 102,807 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#5,010
of 454,962 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#85
of 1,001 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 25,365,817 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 102,807 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 39.3. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 96% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 454,962 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1,001 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 91% of its contemporaries.