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Invariant natural killer T cells act as an extravascular cytotoxic barrier for joint-invading Lyme Borrelia

Overview of attention for article published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, September 2014
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (93rd percentile)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (64th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
1 news outlet
twitter
18 tweeters
facebook
5 Facebook pages

Readers on

mendeley
35 Mendeley
citeulike
2 CiteULike
Title
Invariant natural killer T cells act as an extravascular cytotoxic barrier for joint-invading Lyme Borrelia
Published in
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, September 2014
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1404769111
Pubmed ID
Authors

Woo-Yong Lee, Maria-Jesus Sanz, Connie H. Y. Wong, Pierre-Olivier Hardy, Aydan Salman-Dilgimen, Tara J. Moriarty, George Chaconas, Adriana Marques, Roman Krawetz, Christopher H. Mody, Paul Kubes, Lee WY, Sanz MJ, Wong CH, Hardy PO, Salman-Dilgimen A, Moriarty TJ, Chaconas G, Marques A, Krawetz R, Mody CH, Kubes P

Abstract

CXCR6-GFP(+) cells, which encompass 70% invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells), have been found primarily patrolling inside blood vessels in the liver. Although the iNKT cells fail to interact with live pathogens, they do respond to bacterial glycolipids presented by CD1d on liver macrophage that have caught the microbe. In contrast, in this study using dual laser multichannel spinning-disk intravital microscopy of joints, the CXCR6-GFP, which also made up 60-70% iNKT cells, were not found in the vasculature but rather closely apposed to and surrounding the outside of blood vessels, and to a lesser extent throughout the extravascular space. These iNKT cells also differed in behavior, responding rapidly and directly to joint-homing pathogens like Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease. These iNKT cells interacted with B. burgdorferi at the vessel wall and disrupted dissemination attempts by these microbes into joints. Successful penetrance of B. burgdorferi out of the vasculature and into the joint tissue was met by a lethal attack by extravascular iNKT cells through a granzyme-dependent pathway, an observation also made in vitro for iNKT cells from joint but not liver or spleen. These results suggest a novel, critical extravascular iNKT cell immune surveillance in joints that functions as a cytotoxic barrier and explains a large increase in pathogen burden of B. burgdorferi in the joint of iNKT cell-deficient mice, and perhaps the greater susceptibility of humans to this pathogen because of fewer iNKT cells in human joints.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 18 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 35 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Germany 1 3%
Switzerland 1 3%
United Kingdom 1 3%
United States 1 3%
Netherlands 1 3%
Canada 1 3%
Unknown 29 83%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 12 34%
Researcher 8 23%
Student > Master 5 14%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 9%
Professor 2 6%
Other 5 14%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 17 49%
Immunology and Microbiology 8 23%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 14%
Social Sciences 2 6%
Environmental Science 1 3%
Other 2 6%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 21. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 15 February 2017.
All research outputs
#363,269
of 7,705,958 outputs
Outputs from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#7,954
of 44,698 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#11,440
of 186,116 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#320
of 906 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,705,958 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 95th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 44,698 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 22.8. This one has done well, scoring higher than 82% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 186,116 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 906 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 64% of its contemporaries.